This version incorporates the following changes:
Export: export gridded data as GPS tracks. Allows mixed grid sizes/intervals to be combined.
Import: Track recognition improved, Import file layout checks improved.
Export: added support for exporting gridded data as GPS georeferenced data. Output can also be in UTM/OSGB/other meter based formats.
Export: XYZ data exported in Meters is now given the position of the center, not the corner (i.e. position 0,0 with intervals of 0.5m, 0.5m has an exported position of 0.5m, 0.5m not 0m,0m)
Save Image: KML file was invalid, KML position could sometimes be off.
Open Composite: When Composite was an exported comp, the 'for info' processes were also applied resulting in double application.
Import: Default Sensor separation was not applied for some instruments.
Update: Added an option to force an update even if the updater thinks the program is up to date. The date/time of the last update is stored in the registry
and can be out of sync with the actual, current version.
Save Image: KML files now support rotated surveys, i.e. any survey that has a Direction of First Traverse that is not 0 (North).
The rotated survey uses the KML <gx:LatLonQuad> while non-rotated surveys use <LatLonBox>.
GPS based surveys were automatically North oriented.
Save Image: World files now allow rotated surveys to saved as rotated images with the correct Origin (the top left pixel location).
This is necessary as many GIS systems cannot handle rotated images, even though the World file supports this feature.
Move: Changed Check criteria to only prevent Moves that would place the entire selection outside the survey.
Macros: Added Rename button (renamed macros do move to the bottom of the list).
Macros: Attempting to use a GPS only macro on Gridded data gives a warning.
Import: Various 'Sanity checks' added to the GPS import processes to look for problems with the On Jump and On Pause Track recognition methods.
Move: Did not work for selections in the corner of a survey.
Macros: Did not work after the last major update (due to the checkable processes)
Publish: DXF Export - Georeference no longer worked.
Open Composite: Some missing or mal-formed attributes allowed the Composite to open but caused bizarre errors later on.
Modify GPS: Did not correctly assess and re-apply changes to the order of processes.
Open Grids/Composites: Improved recognition and handling of damaged or incomplete files.
Import: The Grid/Composite name defaults to the source filename for single files (but can be changed) and becomes a prefix for multiple files.
Statistics: Information dialogs added about the use of the Area and Polygon selections for Statistics. These can be turned off in the dialog.
Layer Enabled: When adding the Enabled state to existing composites, the state could be False for all layers resulting in a failure when next opened.
DeStagger: Opening existing composites with DeStagger settings applied the DeStagger in the opposite direction to previous versions.
Export: Exporting to grids did not work.
Lite versions: Main left buttons : 'Manage' section was incorrectly resized so some buttons were no longer visible.
Rotated Shade Survey: The grid lines were not drawn correctly when the grids making up the survey did not reach the edges of the survey.
Layer Disabled: Deleting a disabled layer when it was the top layer caused the program to lock.
Graduated Shade: Got broken for the majority of files while fixing it for a very small minority.
GPS Notch: Apply FFT filtering to Track data.
Modify dialogs: Added Checkboxes to each process (both GPS and Grid based), allows them to be disabled/enabled without deleting them from the stack.
Open Composite: Improved checking of selection areas. Warning message added and selection modified to available area if necessary.
Import: Newer GeoPlot grid files (such as from the RM85) use a slightly different format that was not supported by TerraSurveyor.
Import: Geonics import improved to handle negative X positions in M38 files.
Import: Spreadsheet layout: Improved validity checking and handling of unusual number formats such as ".xxx" (rather than "0.xxx")
Import: All import formats now support selection of multiple source files.
GPS Pop-up menu: This menu is now available when just the tracks are showing, not only when the points are displayed.
Modify dialogs: Changes to the stack of processes are only applied to affected processses, not the whole stack as was previously done.
Download: If the Preferences: Scan ports is OFF then the COM selection page will be shown for download modes that usually omit this (primarily Bartington).
GPS Base: Cut Turns and Break on Jump are now mutually exclusive and both are applied prior to Point Reduction.
GPS Base: Various internal changes to improve the handling of the GPS Base options.
Graduated Shade: TerraSurveyor could not handle surveys where the Y Interval was greater that the X interval.
OSGB36 (British users only): At some stage support for the OSGB36 corrections had been lost, this has been re-instated (make sure you have the OSGB36Data.inc file in the program folder to add support for this standard)
Open Grid Assembly: Could not handle grids in sub-folders of the main Grid folder.
DeStagger: Did not work under some circumstances.
Program Version number was not set.
British Ordnance Survey Coordinate conversions for OSTN02 and OSTN15 did not work in all circumstances.
British users wishing to use OSTN02 or OSTN15 accuracy need to download the new OS conversion files from the website.Without them only OSGB36 is supported.
Export: Added Export as GPS file. Only applicable to Composites who's source is GPS data. Exports an ASCII file with the source X & Y and the values from the top GPS layer. Includes ALL source positions + Start, End and Deleted markers.
GPS DeStagger: Destagger GPS tracks by either moving the values and keeping the positions or by moving the positions but keeping the values.
Import: The Frobisher TAR-3 Resistance meter has been added to the suported import file types. Contact RM Frobisher for details of this instrument.
DeStagger: Grid DeStagger simplified and rationalised. Offset now always in distance in both directions, existing Interval based destaggers converted to distance.
GPS Discard Overlap: Changes made to improve the selection of overlapping points and reject points on the same track.
GPS Base operations: Cancelling an operation now returns immediately to the currently displayed view without re-interpolating everything.
GPS Track to Clipboard: Added descriptions of each layer's function in the first line.
GPS Track Display: Improved handling of screen redraws, improved handling of GPS track dropdown checkbox list.
Mask: Added Zoom In/Out option
Import: Multiple file selection re-instated for Foerster files.
Grid Assembly- Fix Grids: Due to differences in the way Windows 10 and Windows 7/8 define a dialog's height, the Fix Grids dialog may have hidden the buttons at the bottom of the dialog.
Datum Conversion: minor bugs involved with converting between OSGB36, OSTN02 & OSTN15.
Map Coordinates: Added support for the British OSTN15 map coordinate system. (Contact DW Consulting if you wish to enable this feature)
GPS: Discard Overlap: added checks and warnings to ensure the process does not eliminate all, or most of the points in the survey.
GPS: Import: DMm (Degree Min decimal Min) format now supports trailing "S" and "W" to indicate direction (i.e. 00323.123456W is treated as -323.123456 = 3 deg 23.123456min west)
Import Z data: Error trap on empty grid.
GPS Base: Turn recognision improved.
Manual: Expanded description of Regular Expression use for Irregular X&Y import.
GPS: Unnecessary End markers generated when a Start marker was preceded by a deleted track.
GPS: Track points always filled no matter what the preference setting.
GPS Hi/Lo Pass filter: Possible error situations eliminated.
GPS: On Jump: not reset correctly when turned off.
GPS: Additional checks added in the last version did not allow for simple, meters based positions.
Main Panel: Right side panel was not re-displayed if a Publish view was closed.
Publish: Improved loading of old version Publish templates and cad files (problems with Ground Scale).
Publish: Shape Align/Flip/Rotate tools no longer worked.
GPS Base: Added Discard Overlap. This checks all points against it's nearest neighbours. If the point is closer to an existing neighbour (that is not in the same track) than a threshold distance, either the newest or oldest point is marked as deleted. This can breaks tracks into very short segments so the process then checks the length of all tracks, those that are shorter than a specified length are also deleted. 'Newest' and 'oldest' refers to the relative position of the point in the source data, new being further down the file.
GPS Base: Added Break on Jump. This function was already present in the Import wizard
but is really more appropriate with the other track breaking functions now in Base.
It calculates the distance between every point and the next one. If the distance
exceeds a threshold, the gap is converted to a break: the first point becomes a Track
End, the next a Track Start.
Note that this function should not be used in conjunction with Point Reduction. The Point Reduction is always applied first (it's only purpose is to reduce the burden on subsequent functions and processes) and may eliminate multiple points in a track creating gaps that Break on Jump will then interpret as track breaks.
DeStripe: Unnecessary block on Sensor + Threshold method removed.
Interpolation: Added check for multiple or un-killable copies of the SurgeF task running before attempting to start a new one.
Registration Dialog: Added a 'Copy to Clipboard' button to simplify copying the Registered PC and Machine code to an email.
GPS: Adding / removing track breaks now forces request to save on close.
GPS: Adding / removing track or track break now redraws the survey immediately (though does not re-interpolate the survey).
Shade View: Reduced screen blanking when redrawing a large survey.
GPS DeStripe: Added error checking for unmatched Start / End traverse markers.
GPS Detail: Changed the default Interval to be the same as the source composite interval.
Publish view: Hints added to all left hand panel buttons.
GPS: The GPS Track now draws deleted points as a small 'x', Track Start points are now drawn in a more visible green.
Publish view: Selecting the Contour: None/Vector/Raster options caused a crash.
Publish view: Creating - Deleting - Creating a survey with raster contours caused a crash.
Publish view: Changing Histogram font then selecting / resizing the histogram casused a crash.
High/Low Filter: The descriptions of the settings for this filter displayed in Modify were not always correct.
Machine Code Registration: A valid MC registration did not enable all buttons on the NavBar.
Export dialog: The dialog box could be set to the wrong width depending on the version of Windows being used.
GPS: Manual track breaks not always saved to composite.
GPS Merge Composites: Did not work with some variants of composite file.
Foerster Ferex import: Added checks for valid Ferex data, import aborts if not found.
Import: Grid size can now be set to non-integer values (such as 10.1m x 10.5m)
Publish: New GPS Track option. This will draw a line on a survey following the track of the GPS points.
OSGB36: The data file for accurate conversions of lat/Long to OSGB36 has been moved to the user's AppData folder. This should eliminate permissions problems.
The change will only be automatic for new installations, if you have permissions problems with this file you can move it by hand to the AppsData/Roaming/DWC/TerraSurveyor folder.
SurgeF: The interpolation tool SurgeF.exe will be installed in the same folder as the TerraSurveyor application.
This change will only affect new installations, existing installations will continue to use the AppData folder.
This change is to overcome installation permission problems that are arising with new and more secure Windows versions.
Export as DXF: The geo-referenced position was not correct.
GPS-Base: Turn Removal: Changes to the Turn Removal parameters did not restore previously deleleted points so gaps would just accumulate rather than be replaced.
Process menu: Annotate and Maths menu items did not work, links to code were broken.
This interim revision is to fix a serious bug introduced in the last bugfix that prevented any composite from being opened.
This interim revision is to fix a serious bug introduced in the last revison that could prevent newly imported or downloaded data from being saved.
DeSpike & GPSDeSpike: No longer limited to the specified range of Thresholds. Any value (down to 0.01) can be entered.
Save Composite: Problems saving new composites.
Import: Irregular X&Y: Did not always pick up the negative sign on Lat / Long values.
Import: Irregular X&Y: Not all Start / End Marker situations handled correctly.
GPS Shade view: New menu function to highlight the current 'track'. Select a point (the point will be marked with a yellow circle) and right-click to get the menu. Check the 'Highlight Track' menu item to see the track marked in purple. The parent track of any selected point will be highlighted until the 'Highlight Track' menu item is un-checked.
Import: Irregular X&Y format has two new Traverse or Track recognition methods called 'On Jump' and 'On Pause'. When On Jump is active, the distance between each point and the previous one is calculated. If the distance is greater than the distance specified in the template, a Track Break will be generated. On Pause works the same but reads the time in a specified column and generates a break if the time difference is greater than the specified threshold.
Preferences - General: added support for the Irish ITM map coordinate system. (must be specifically selected in Preferences to be available). Only applicable to imported GPS data.
Shade View: Local Trace dialog re-designed to allow any trace to be turned off.
GPS Point Selection: Speed and accuracy of point selection improved.
Displayed position: Added ability to display data imported with base positions in 'Meters' in any other co-ordinate system.
Import: Check addded to ensure that the 3 columns 'X, Y & Val' are are all different.
Error Reporting: A new error reporting system is used in this version as the old one caused problems after development of TerraSurveyor was moved to a Windows 10 PC. The functionality is the same, you are still able to send a report back to us. The only difference is the apperance of the dialog boxes asking for your input and choices.
Publish: Some text entities changed their formatting depending on how they were created.
Interpolate: Choosing 'Custom' and setting an invalid value (0 or 1) would prevent you from changing to 'Halve' or 'Double'.
Publish: Trace surveys can now be rotated. Note that, as with the Trace view, the traces will always remain 'horizontal'; pseudo-traverses will be interpolated from the source data to generate traces at the required positions. Also, the width of the Trace survey object will remain constant as the survey turns. The height will change to accomodate the survey at the correct aspect ratio and allow for the height of the traces. This does however mean that the survey size changes as it rotates. The change will depend on the angle and width/height ratio of the survey.
Import: Surfer files: Improved handling of 'odd' sized grids such as 19.9m x 19.9m
Import: Surfer files: Intervals trimmed to 3 decimal places to avoid problems with intervals such as '0.100503m'
Import: Surfer files: Files checked for completely blank top & right columns, deleted if found
Import: GeoMetrics files: Added support for STN files with 'reversed' X & Y axes and other 'odd' data constructs
MetaData: The Site Summary feature has been changed in operation. See the Help file or manual for details.
Import: Spreadsheet: Added an option to import the file either with true size or rounded-up size (e.g. a 9.5m x 9.5m grid is imported as 10m x 10m with extra blank rows & columns)
Import: Warnings about incorrect formats improved.
Licensing: Warnings at start-up regarding incorrect licenses improved.
Publish: Changing the VScale of a Trace survey and then selecting the Trace Survey caused a crash.
Publish: Grid boxes drawn incorrectly for some Trace survey orientations.
Publish: Trace Survey linestyle not correctly used when drawing the traces.
Publish: Changes to surveys will now force all dependant objects (compass, scales, text, etc.) to update to reflect any changes to the survey.
Grid Select (right-click on the shade survey): Rounding errors could cause the bottom/right row/col to be omitted when large grids (>= 200 rows/cols) were very displayed at low magnification.
Import: Spreadsheet: Using the Grid Size "Set by File" value caused an error.
GPS Remove Turns: A new GPS based process. This process finds sharp bends in a GPS track and removes a length of the track either side of the bend's apex. Used to split continuously collected data into tracks for further processing (most importantly DeStripe). The process is always applied to the base layer and so is stored as attributes of the base process. The process is also applied and modified via the Base button.
Lite Versions ONLY: Program description given in Splash screen corrected.
Distance measure: This has been changed to measure actual distance and angle between two pixel points rather than between the centers of the intervals the points were in.
Distance measure: The dialog that reports the distance and angle has been changed to a less intrusive and time-consuming one. It will automatically disappear once the mouse is moved.
GPS Reduce Points: This process has been moved and is now applied as an attribute of the Base layer. The process is now applied and modified via the Base button. It is always applied after 'Remove Turn' (if applicable). This is to allow the Remove Turn algorithm as much data as possible to recognise turns.
Preferences: Added preferences to set the width of the GPS Track line and circles. These are specified in pixels. The Start and End circles are always Green and Red and are just larger (by the line width) than the data point circles. There is also an option to have filled or hollow circles. The method to draw the lines and circles has also been changed: all the lines are drawn first and then the circles are drawn over the top (before, the circle and line for each point was drawn before going to the next point. This resulted in a "C-C-C-" chain as each circle was drawn over the end of the preceding line.
Rotate Shade view: An error could occur when a survey of a particular size was rotated to a particular angle.
Print View: Distance Ticks were not scaled correctly when the view was rotated.
Nav Bar: Cancelling the loading of a large composite could leave the 'Save Composite' buttons enabled. This caused an error if pressed when no composite was open.
GPS Base: Could not change the Interval & Track Radius values.
Merge Composites: A new menu item (under File) allows multiple GPS based composites to be merged into a single file.
Wallis Filter: Though the Wallis filter has been in TerraSurveyor for a number of years, the implementation has never been that successful. This new version is a complete re-write of the process with new parameters and a live example window showing the effect of the filter on a small area of the current survey. Existing surveys using the Wallis filter will be converted (as far as possible) to the new process. A warning will always be given when opening a survey that uses the old version, saving the survey will always use the new version.
Measure (Shade view only): The distance and angle between two points on a survey can now be measured on screen. Hold down both the ALT and SHIFT keys then drag over a line. When the mouse is released a dialog will show the length and angle (from North) of the line.
Grid Assembly: Complex Grid Transforms: A Fix Grids button has been added that gives access to user-definable, complex grid transforms. Using this the user will be able to create any conceivable transform for any number of sensors in any direction. A small set of transforms is included as examples.
GPS Reduce Points: Uses the Douglas-Peucker polyline simplification algorithm to reduce the number of datapoints passed to subsequent GPS processes.
UXO (Vallon) import: Now allows selection of multiple files.
Irregular X&Y import: New column selection mechanism to support multiple sensors per row of data.
Import wizard: Modified the Track trigger mechanism to support 'On change' as well as simple occurrence.
Main screen StatusBar: GPS position indication moved to separate panel on the status bar.
Periphery Match: Significant improvements to the effectiveness of this process have been made: Matching of left & right sides of grids improved, Handling of dummies along edges improved.
Publish - Survey Distance Ticks: The Distance Ticks that can be drawn above and to the left of a survey have been re-designed. Instead of the separation of the Major ticks being in fractions or multiples of a grid width, they are now specified in actual units. This is much more useful, especially for GPS-based data which does not have grids. The Minor ticks are also modified, instead of specifying a fraction of a Major tick, you now specify the number of ticks required between Major ticks. For example, instead of selecting "1/4" you would enter "3" to get minor ticks at the 0.25, 0.5 & 0.75 positions. Existing surveys using the old method will be automatically converted to the new method.
Grid Assembly: Changing the Grid Thumbnail size now only updates the grid thumbnails after changes have been completed (the update waits for 1sec after each change).
UXO (Vallon) import: Minor improvements to this import process.
Publish view: various situations that may have resulted in errors or crashes fixed.
Mask Dialog: Using the Enter key while adding a line or polygon would crash the program.
Load Composite: X & Y Origin not always read in from composite file.
MetaData view: Not all fields supported Ctrl-V (paste)
GEOSCAN Download: A significant bug was found in the GEOSCAN download process. This prevented the FIRST value read in any download operation from being read correctly. This has been fixed.
GEONICS EM38 Import: Now supports non-integer, but regular X & Y separations.
Download: Selecting a Template that has the 'old' protocol name of 'GeoScan RM15' would cause an error as the protocol name was changed to 'GeoScan RM15 / RM85' in a previous version. This is now handled correctly.
Preferences - General: added support for the Dutch RijksDriehoek map coordinate system. (must be specifically selected in Preferences to be available)
High/Low pass filter (normal and GPS): Added Uniform (median) mode, original Uniform mode is now Uniform (mean).
Import: Added support for SenSys ASCII files.
Copy Image: A new menu / keyboard shortcut item has been added called 'Copy Image' (Ctrl+I). Choosing this item or pressing the key combination will copy the currently displayed image (in the Shade, Trace, Delta, 3D and Relief views) to the clipboard. Note that this will make an exact copy of the screen image, at the current magnification. The cursor position label will be copied if visible and large surveys using graduated shade may show previously undisplayed areas as block shaded.
CAD View: Text Entities - formatting of values to limit decimals to max 3 places.
Mask process: Blank mode changed so that it is immediately visible, not after the next process is applied.
Publish: added formating to numerical text entities to limit the number of decimal places displayed.
Load Composite: Improved error checking of loaded file.
Modify dialog: Would get hidden if the user switched to another application.
GPS Hi/Lo pass filter: Added Progress dialog for large surveys.
Grid Assembly: Open Grids Progress dialog now shows the filename and a cancel button.
OSGB36: The co-ordinates for surveys converted to the British OSGB36 (or OSTN02) system were not corrected for the difference between the grid north and magnetic north.
MetaData: Sensor & Survey method were not shown
Mask process: fixed some problems with editing Masks.
GSSI Import: Process did not allow for the possibility of a variable number of parameters in data lines.
Load Comp: Fixed a rounding error that occurred with very small intervals in GPS data.
GPS Straighten: Fixed errors which occurred when the Straighten process changed the overall size of the survey.
GPS Composites: The file load process was losing the line Start/End markers.
View Clipping: found & fixed another situation where the clipping values were lost when changing views.
Import: Added support for Vallon UXO files. (initial version only, based on a single example file. Please contact DW Consulting if you have other Vallon files that cannot be handled by the currrent process)
View Settings: Display Clip now has 3 modes: +/- 3SD, Slider bar & Absolute values. Choose the method you want then (for the last 2) set the slider or Min/Max to Clip the View.
Remember this is ONLY clipping the view, not the underlying data! Also, the actual SD number can be set in Preferences.
DeStripe: Added Absolute threshold value option. The min and max values to be included in the destrip calculations can be exactly specified.
Undo: Added a simple 'delete the last process' menu & keyboard shortcut (Ctrl-U).
Download: RM85, improved support for RM85 data format (uses 1 & 2 digit data values - previous GeoScan data formats used zero padded values, always 3 digits)
Added startup check for the SurgeF.exe interpolation program
Main Display: Intervals - removed Lat Long option (did not work correctly and would have been very hard to implement)
Import: GSSI format - general improvements to the GSSI Profiler import process, Handling of blank lines in files, Output file naming, File selection.
Export: KML files, accuracy of image placement improved.
Export: Improved formatting of attributes in exported TerraSurveyor Grids.
Export: List of available formats corrected (still listed "AS")
Export: TS Composite exported as TS Grids: Added default grid name if the source grid did not have a name.
Preferences: The use of - and default mode - of Display Clipping can now be preset in preferences.
DeStripe: Redesigned dialog to simplify the interface and support the new Absolute threshold option.
XML file reading: A new XML file reading library is used that makes loading Composites and Grid files much quicker.
Preferences: Default Palette was not saved.
Download: GeoScan data could sometimes 'sneak through' after the com port was told to close causing errors when the program tried to write this data to the next - non-exisitant - grid.
Import: GSSI format - Lat & Long axes of GPS based data were swapped.
Save Image: A combination of small surveys and low magnification in Continuous Shading mode could result in images being clipped to the wrong size.
Histogram: Improved drawing shape when there are few points (or heavy clipping) in the survey
Installer: unnecessary files removed from the Templates folder.
Grad Shade: Not always applied with large comps when there was a large difference between the X & Y interval.
Import: Templates not saving Grid Size & Interval.
Import: Sensor count & separation sometimes disabled for file formats that could support multiple sensors.
DeStagger: Sometimes limited to 2 sensors for instruments that could support more sensors.
View Settings: Contour Color selector hidden.
View Settings: Display Clip did not stay on selected mode (+/- 3SD or range) when comp modified.
View Settings: Display Clip Range changed to always allow increments of 1 nT on the slider.
View Settings: Block Color setting did not show exactly the same colors on the survey as on the palette.
Periphery Match: Could fail under certain circumstances due to empty grids.
Band Width Equalization: failed if used with Grad Shade.
Band Width Equalization: Survey moved up by 1/2 Y interval when this mode selected.
Exit: needed 2 attempts, first to close the open composites, second to close the application.
Import Geonics M38: Did not work with some datasets.
Clipping: Changing Min or Max values in the edit box failed if the edit box was not exited before closing the dialog box.
Download: GeoScan instruments. Added the 2047 value as equivalent to dummy, hard wired all modes to use 2047.5 & 2047 instead of the value in the wizard edit box.
Download: GeoScan RM85 / RM15 / MPX15. On some PCs the download would sometimes overrun the memory allocated for the grids causing an error.
Download: the Progress bar did not always show when downloading grids for some instruments.
New Process: Periphery Match - Calculates a 2D surface for each grid and subtracts that surface from each value. The shape of the surface is determined by the average of the grid's edge values and their neighbours in adjacent grids.
New Process: Normalize - Convert all values in the selection area or individual grids to a value between 0 and 1.
View settings : Display Clipping - Now a Preference to choose +/- 1, 2, 3, or 4 SD (was fixed at 3SD)
Default template modified to use the new DWC logo.
Download: Protocol list - RM85 added to the GeoScan formats (identical to the existing RM15 or MPX15)
Grid Assembly: The line thickness between grid squares reduced to one pixel.
Spreadsheet view: Added Ctrl-C & Ctrl-X keyboard shortcuts to copy / cut data as ASCII
View Settings: Cleaned up panel display for different modes in the View Settings dialog.
Online Updating: Will actually work once this version is installed!
3D View: Gridlines always turned on if the Settings dialog was hidden.
3D View: Gridlines did not always scale in sync with the survey.
3D View: Initial image brightness was not set to the same value as the Brightness slider.
Spreadsheet view: Spreadsheet was always redrawn as 'all' if the form was resized.
Save Images: Changing the name of images in the dialog did not always carry through to the saved image.
Display Clipping: Odd interaction between the display clipping modes and the Zoom button (setting the clip range changed the zoom level and disabled subsequent clipping).